Jaunpur, a district of Uttar Pradesh is located in the Varanasi division with its headquarters located at Jaunpur city. Earlier, Jaunpur was called as Sheeraz-e-Hind. The history of the district is related to the history of Jaunpur city. During the year 1359, the Sultan of Delhi, Feroz Shah Tughlaq founded the city of Jaunpur and he named it after the name of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughlaq or Jauna Khan. An interesting mythological story is also associated with its name. Natives of the district believe that Jaunpur was the Karmbhoomi means working place of Rishi Jamadagni, father of Parashuram because of this very reason the place was popularly known as Jamadagnipur at that point of time. In the medieval period, this region was occupied by numerous notable rulers and every ruler has added a distinct chapter to the history of this district. During the reign of Husain Shah (1456-76), the army of Jaunpur was perhaps the biggest in the entire India, and then Husain planned in his mind to attempt a conquest of Delhi. But in his three successive attempts he was defeated by Bahlul Khan Lodi. Under the influence of Muslim rulers, Jaunpur Sultanate was a notable center of Urdu and Sufi knowledge and culture. In the time of Sharqi dynasty, the region was known for its excellent communal relations between Muslims and Hindus. But unfortunately the freedom of Jaunpur was curtailed in 1480, when the city was overpowered by Sikander Lodhi, the Sultan of Delhi. Moreover, the kings of Sharqi dynasty attempted for several times to took back the place, but they were failed every time. The feeling of contempt was so strong between these two dynasties that all the Sharqi monuments were destroyed by the Lodis when they captured the city. The old bridge in Jaunpur over the Gomti River constructed in 1564, the era of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. When there was British Raj in India, based on the Permanent settlement of 1779, the British captured the district which was the subject to the Zamindari system of land revenue collection. The Sikh troops in the district joined the Indian rebels at the time of the Revolt of 1857. At that time Jaunpur city was a district administrative centre.
Sir Syed Wazir Hasan, an eminent Indian jurist and secretary and later became the president of the All-India Muslim League was born in 1874 in Jaunpur district. He was the first Indian Chief Justice of the Awadh Chief Court (1930-1934). In his presidential address at the 24th session, of Muslim League he emphasized on Hindu-Muslim unity, before Jinnah raised the topic of separate Muslim state, the very next year.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°75'N latitude, 82°69'E longitude and 88 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 1.72% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 4,038 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the rank of 24th in the state and 296th in India. It is bounded by Sultanpur district on the north, Sant Ravidas Nagar district and Varanasi district on the south, Pratapgarh district and Allahabad district on the west, Azamgarh district and Ghazipur district on the east. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Gomti and Sai. Most of the time, the district suffers from drought and pestilence. The actual rainfall in the district was 419.5 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 6 tehsils namely Badlapur, Shahganj, Machhali Shahar, Jaunpur, Mariahu and Kerakat. There are 2 Lok Sabha constituencies- Jaunpur and Machhali Shahar in the district.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 44,94,204 out of which 22,20,465 are males and 22,73,739 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1024 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.89% including 14.34% were males and 15.43% were females. The population density in the district is 1,113 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 1,22,145 including 67,180 were males and 54,965 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 33,679 out of which 18,780 were males and 14,899 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 88.59% and 10.76% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 98.00%.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture. The chief agricultural crops of Jaunpur are rice, maize, pigeon pea, pearl millet, black gram wheat and chickpea. Some other crops are also grows in their agricultural fields such as onion and potato. The district has a little heavy industry. Cotton mills and some textile manufacturers are its core factories which contributes a huge chunk of revenue to its economy. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 21,28,372 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 13,02,558 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 18,59,186 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 11,03,596 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 37,450 at Current Price and Rs. 22,230 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, of Jaunpur is named after Shri Veer Bahadur Singh, the former chief minister of Uttar Pradesh and the university was earlier known as Purvanchal University. It was established in 1987 as a affiliating university. The district provides a platform for higher education and it is well known as an educational centre across the country. As per 2011 census the literacy rate of the district is 71.55% including 83.8% are males and 59.81% are females.
Kripashankar Singh, an illustrious Indian politician and the former minister of state in the 2004 Maharashtra state cabinet was born in Jaunpur. He is the member of Indian National Congress political party. He was also the party president of the Mumbai till June 2011 because at that time he resigned from the post when his son was involved in the 2G scam, an enormous telecommunications corruption scandal of 2010.
During the year 2021, there were 1,59,175 domestic tourists and 1 foreign tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has many historical places and monuments which allures travellers from different places of the world. Shahi Qila, one of the beautiful historical structures was built by Firoz Shah III in 1162 in Jaunpur city on the bank of the Gomti River. The Kerar kot fort was once stood in the same place. The main gate of the qila is stand facing towards east. The largest inner gate is 14 metres (46 ft) in height. Within the qila there is also a two storied palace, fort mosque and baths. Atala mosque was constructed by Firoz Shah III in 1393 after he had demolished the Atala Devi temple in 1376. Jhanjhari mosque, Lal Darwaza mosque, Jama mosque and Shahi Pul are some other extra ordinary constructions of the Mughal rulers of different periods.