Ghaziabad, a sub-urban district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Ghaziabad city is a part of Meerut Division. On 14th November, 1976 Ghaziabad was emerged as a separate district in the map of Uttar Pradesh prior to that it was a tehsil of Meerut district. Ghaziabad was declared as a district on 14th November, 1976 by the then chief minister Mr. N.D. Tiwari, on the occasion of birth anniversary of the first prime minister of Republic India, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru. Ghaziabad city was founded by Vazir Ghazi-ud-din in 1740 AD, who named the city Ghaziuddinnagar after himself. The district has no distinct history of its own so to trace its historical background it is utmost important to know the history of Ghaziabad city. Interestingly, the name some neighbouring towns and villages of the city likewise Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region are mentioned in the famous epic, Mahabharata on the other hand the fort placed at Loni is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. The city has witnessed numerous major wars and battles over the last many centuries. Once in 1313 AD, the entire region of present day’s Ghaziabad was a huge battlefield, when Taimur attacked the area in order to capture it during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign. Again, during the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in the year, 1803. With the passage of time and at the time of opening of the Railways in 1864, the earlier name of the place "Ghaziuddinnagar" was shortened and changed to its present name, "Ghaziabad". During the same time period, a Scientific Society was established here which is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. The district is popularly known as the Gateway of Delhi since its boundary is neighbouring to Delhi which acts as the main entrance of Uttar Pradesh.
Suresh Raina, a well known all rounder of Indian cricket team was born on 27th November, 1986 at Muradnagar in the district. He is the current vice-captain of Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League. Lara Dutta who crowned Miss Universe 2000 and Miss Intercontinental 1997 was born on 16th April, 1978 in the district.
Geographically, the district lies at 28°67'N latitude, 77°45'E longitude and 212 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 2.14% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses an area of 1,179 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 70th in the state and 569th in India. It is bounded by Baghpat district on the northwest, Meerut district on the north, Hapur district on the east, Bulandshahr district on the southeast, Gautam Buddha Nagar district on the southwest and Delhi across the Yamuna River on the west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Hindon. The climate of the district is very much similar to the Delhi since Delhi is the neighbouring place of the district. During the summer it is extremely hot and most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 410.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administrative wise, the district is divided into 4 sub-divisions namely Ghaziabad, Hapur, Modi Nagar and Garhmukteshwar. There are 4 tehsils and 8 development blocks in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 26 towns and 547 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 46,81,645 out of which 24,88,834 are males and 21,92,811 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 881 females every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 42.27% including 40.69% were males and 44.12% were females. The population density in the district is 3,971 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 67,325 including 35,263 were males and 32,062 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 18,701 out of which 11,870 were males and 6,831 were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 72.93% and 25.35% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 90.96%.
The economy of the district is primarily based on the industries. The growing industries in the district provide employment opportunities to its natives and also contribute a huge chunk of revenue to its economy. Steel sector is the prime industrial sector in the district. Other miscellaneous industries of Ghaziabad include bicycles, picture tubes, electroplating, glassware, vegetable oil, tapestry, paint and varnish products. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 40,43,281 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 28,01,788 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 35,48,332 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 24,02,749 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 72,996 at Current Price and Rs. 49,429 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
Gautam Buddha University located in Greater Noida is the nearest reputed university which offers degrees in the various fields-science, humanities, engineering, law and management. Some renowned schools in Ghaziabad includes DLF Public School, Delhi Public School, DAV Public School, Ingraham Institute and Ryan International School. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 78.07% including 85.42% are males and 69.79% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 31,23,264 out of which 18,11,397 are males and 13,11,867 are females.
K.C. Tyagi, a distinguished Indian politician and the Member of the Parliament representing the Bihar was born on 10th December, 1950 at Morta in the district. At present he serves as the Chief General Secretary and National Spokesperson of the Janata Dal (United). He is also the Chairman of the Parliamentary standing committee on Industry.
During the year 2021, there were 7,41,955 domestic tourists and 357 foreign tourists who visited these places of the district. Apart from the shopping malls and multiplexes there are also some other centres of attraction in the district which allures numerous travellers from different parts of the world. Bahadurgarh, a village situated in the south-eastern region ofthe district. Earlier the village was called as the Garh Nana which was presented as a gift by Emperor Jahangir to Nawab Bahadur Khan, who later changed its name to Bahadurgarh. Modinagar is located on the Delhi-Mussoorie National Highway, which is named after an illustrious businessman, Gujar Mal Modi, who established a sugar factory there in the year 1933. Dadri, a place in the district is known for the world’s largest power project, managed by the National Thermal Power Corporation. Some other chief tourist destinations in the district are Jalalabad, Murad Nagar, Faridnagar, Dhaulana and Ajrara.