Mainpuri district, a part of Agra division is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Mainpuri town. At the very beginning, Mainpuri was a part of the great empire of king called, Kanauj but when his empire started to decline then it was divided into a number of petty principalities like Rapri and Bhongaon were the main. In 1194 Rapri became the seat of Muslim governor. After sometime in 1526 the Mughal emperor, Babur invaded the region for the first time, and then the short-lived Afghan dynasty of Shere Shah wrested the place from them temporarily. But later Mainpuri was again occupied by the Mughals on the reinstatement of Humayun. At the end of the 18th century, Mainpuri was passed into the hands of the Mahrattas and finally it became a significant part of the province of Oudh. When the rulers ceded this part of the country to the British in 1801 then the British made Mainpuri as the headquarters of the extensive Etawah district, which was again reduced by the formation of Etah and Mainpuri as separate collectorates in 1856. During the revolt of 1857 the regiment was stationed at Mainpuri and then attacked the town but the few Europeans of the station for a week was defended the attack successfully, until the arrival of the Jhansi mutineers made it necessary to abandon the district.
Kamleshwar, a distinguished Hindi writer, scriptwriter for Hindi cinema and television of 20th century was born on 6th January, 1932 at Mainpuri town. He was honoured by many prestigious awards such as Sahitya Akademi Award in 2003 and Padma Bhushan in 2005.
Geographically, the district lies at 27°23'N latitude, 79°02'E longitude and 153 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 0.49% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,760 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 45th in the state and 424th in India. It is surrounded by Kanshi Ram Nagar district on the north, Etawah district on the south, Farrukhabad district and Kannauj district on the east and Firozabad district and Etah district on the west. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer season. Rainfall occurs mostly in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 667.6 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 tehsils namely Bhogaon, Karhal and Mainpuri. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 18,68,529 out of which 9,93,377 are males and 8,75,152 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 881 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 17.02% including 15.52% were males and 18.78% were females. The population density in the district is 677 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 41,087 including 21,113 were males and 19,974 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 6,856 out of which 4,543 were males and 2,313 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 11,096 out of which 5,839 were males and 5,257 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 93.48% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 99.63%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Some of its chief agricultural products are barley, maize, pulses, etc. The production level of its agricultural products are increasing day by day since it has ample means of irrigation facilities like canals, wells, including tube-wells, and rivers. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. Sometimes the lack of enterprises and technical training among the natives stands as an obstacle in the way of industrial development of the district. Cotton ginning, oilseed milling, lamp and glass manufacture, etc comprises the prominent industries of the district. The district is well known for its tobacco, sarus crane and wooden sculptures. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 14,34,343 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,03,452 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 12,79,134 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 6,92,819 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 60,890 at Current Price and Rs. 32,980 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of many reputed educational institutions. It as well provides a platform for higher education. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Baburam Mahavidyalaya Karhal, National Degree College, G.S.M. Degree College, A.K. College, Kishni Mahavidyalaya, Paliwal Degree College, D.A.V. Inter College, C.R.B. Punjabi Colony, Suditi Global Academy, etc. As per 2011 the literacy rate in the district is 75.99% including 84.53% are males and 66.3% are females.
Raghunath Singh Verma, an illustrious Indian politician and a member of 6th and 7th Lok Sabha was born on 7th September, 1948 at Jasrana town in the Mainpuri district. He was also served as the member of the Vidhan Sabha of Uttar Pradesh from 1967-68 and 1969-74. Badshah Gupta, an eminent freedom fighter and a member of 1th and 3th Lok Sabha was born in the year 1900 at Ram Nagar village in the district. He was also participated in the national movement in the year 1942. He was a member of Indian National Congress (INC).
Ever year numerous travellers from different parts of the country as world come to this place to enjoy its great variety of tourist destinations. Fort of Maharaja Tej Singh Chauhan is situated at the old Mainpuri at Devi Road. The Raja's palace popularly known as the Garhi, is the foremost place of interest in the town. Modern places of attraction are Foolbagh and Lohia Park. Foolbagh is situated at Jail Chauraha whereas the Lohia Park is situated at District Collectrate. Both the parks have green lawns and beautiful fountains. Sheetla Devi Temple, a notable temple of this place where every year during the month of March or April a Rural Exhibition-cum-Trade Fair held for 20 days. Bhimsen Mandir, an ancient Shiv temple is situated besides the Falahari Ashram on Jyoti-Devi Road has very rare Statue of Goddess Durga with 18 arms. On Devi road there are twin Shiv Temples of Kale Mahadev and Shweat Mahadev.