Etawah district, a part of Kanpur division is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Etawah town. Natives of the district believe that in the ancient era this region was the centre of the early Aryans which were called Panchalas. The name of this place has been mentioned in both the great epic Mahabharata and Ramayana. There is a belief that the city was founded by King Bharat. During different periods of time the district was ruled by many popular dynasties such as Guptas, Kanvas, Kanishka, Nagas, etc. In the 9th and 10th centuries, this region was under the rule of Gurjara Pratihara rulers. The conquest of Kannauj by Nagabhata II handed Pratiharas control over this region. But the place was said to be evolved as an affluent region under Mihir Bhoj, the Pratihara King. The participation of the natives of this region was remarkable during the period of Indian struggle for independence. Moreover, it played a vital role in the Revolt of 1857 when A.O. Hume, the founder of Indian National Congress was District Collector. During the British Raj and the post-independence period, Etawah has experienced modernization and development. The district is partly watered by branches of the Ganges canal.
Gopal das Saxena popularly known as Neeraj, a distinguished poet and author in Hindi literature was born in the year 1925 at Puravali village in the Etawah district. He was honoured by the prestigious award Padma Bhushan in 2007.
Geographically, the district lies at 26°78'N latitude, 79°02'E longitude and 197 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 10.88% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,311 sq. km. and in terms of geographical area it occupies the ranks of 56th in the state and 465th in India. It is bounded by Mainpuri district on the north, Jalaun district on the south, Agra district and Madhya Pradesh on the east and Auraiya district on the west. The prominent rivers that flows through the district are Yamuna and Chambel. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold in the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 588.3 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils namely Etawah, Bharthana, Jaswantnagar, Chakarnagar and Saifai. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 6 towns and 692 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 15,81,810 out of which 8,45,856 are males and 7,35,954 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 870 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.15% including 17.36% were males and 19.06% were females. The population density in the district is 684 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 41,613 including 22,267 were males and 19,346 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 8,147 out of which 4,173 were males and 3,974 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 92.17% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal languages in the district is Hindi with 98.20%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Some of its chief agricultural crops in the district are wheat, paddy, oil seeds, pulses, potato, vegetables, etc. Farmers of the district cultivate both the kharif and rabi crops in their suitable seasons. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the farmers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. The district has also some prominent industries which help in its economy to some extent. There are small scale industries in the district where oil, wheat flour, different types of pulses, rice, chemicals, engineering goods, plastic goods, grass ware, electrical, leather goods, and textile and allied products are produced in a large quantity. The district is also famous for its Ayurvedic medicines which it exports to its nearby districts. In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 14,42,269 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,48,817 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 12,73,392 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 7,25,208 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 70,952 at Current Price and Rs. 40,408 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
It is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Janta College, Karm Kshetra Degree (PG) College, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Degree College, K.K.P.G College, Mahi College of Science Technology, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 78.41% including 86.06% are males and 69.61% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 10,62,003 including 6,23,583 are males and 4,38,420 are females.
Shri C.K. Jain, an illustrious Indian politician and a member of the 10th Lok Sabha and Secretariat of Lok Sabha from 1st January, 1992 to 31st May, 1994 was born on 3rd May, 1935 at Etawah town. Akhilesh Yadav, the 20th Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh since 2012 was born on 1st July, 1973 at Saifai in the Etawah district. He is a member of the Samajwadi Party.
During the year 2021, there were 8,60,161 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has numerous centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Some of its notable places of interest are Bhareh ka Qila, Boddh Sculptures, Bais Khwaja, National Chambal Sanctuary, Tixi Temple, Jains Temple, Nilkanth Temple, Kaaliwahan Temple, St. Mary Church, Company Bag Garden, St. Mary Garden, etc.