Deoria district, a part of Gorakhpur division is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Deoria town. Earlier it was a part of the Gorakhpur district but later it was emerged as separate district in the map of Uttar Pradesh State on 16th March, 1946. The name Deoria is derived from the term Devaranya or Devpuria. The district was named Deoria after its headquarters in Deoria. The term Deoria means a place abounding in temples since there are so many significant temples in the area. Historically, once the Deoria district was a part of the Kosala, the kingdom of Lord Rama during the Ramayana era. Prior to the Mahabharata period, the place Deoria was under the rule of Chakravorty Samrat Mahasudtsan. During different periods of time the district was under the rule of different dynasties such as Maurya dynasty, Gupta dynasty, Bhar dynasty, Garhwal dynasty etc. Apart from the stories told by many historians about this area, archaeological remains such as statues, coins, bricks, temples, Budh Maths, etc have been found at many locations in this district during the excavations which proved that once upon a time there was a developed and well-organised society in this region. During the period of freedom struggle in India the district participated in that movements very actively under the leadership of Pandit Bibhuti Mani Tripathi of village Dehrauli, Rudrapur.
Geographically, the district lies at 26050'N latitude, 83079'E longitude and 68 m altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 0.60% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 2,540 sq. km. and in terms of geographical are it occupies the ranks of 49th in the state and 434th in India. It is bounded by Kushinagar district on the north, Mau district and Ballia district on the south, Gopalganj district and Siwan district on the east and Gorakhpur district on the west. The climate of the district remains hot and humid during the summer whereas it remains fairly cold during the winter. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 487.9 mm in the year of 2018-19.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 5 tehsils namely Deoria sadar, Salempur, Rudrapur, Berhaj and Bhatparrani. There are one Lok Sabha seat and 7 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 10 towns and 2,162 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 31,00,946 out of which 15,37,436 are males and 15,63,510 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1017 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.31% including 13.46% were males and 15.16% were females. The population density in the district is 1,221 persons per sq. km. In the year 2017 the number of live births in the district was 48,418 including 25,314 were males and 23,104 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,816 out of which 3,267 were males and 2,549 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 88.07% of the total population. According to 2001 the principal language the district is Hindi with 98.52%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Major part of its land is used for agricultural purpose. Some of its chief agricultural products are wheat, maize, rice, arhar, gram, sugarcane, etc. every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these agricultural products. Most of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Only a few sugar mills are found in it. To some extent the economy of the district is also based on tourism since it is a perfect destination for religious tourism. Moreover, the Buddhist pilgrimage centre, Kushinagar is as well situated near to the district. In the year 2016-17 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 11,07,503 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 8,46,188 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 11,18,053 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 7,69,552 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2017-18 was Rs. 33,789 at Current Price and Rs. 23,257 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has numerous schools and colleges. Some of its reputed educational institutions are Baba Raaghav Das PG College, Sant Vinova PG College, Mahila Post Graduate College, Mahara Agrasen College of Commerce, ITI Deoria, Government Polytechnic College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 71.13% including 83.27% are males and 59.38% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 18,75,239 including 10,79,288 are males and 7,95,951 are females.
Kalraj Mishra, an eminent Indian politician and the present Union Cabinet Minister of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in the BJP-led NDA government was born on 1st July, 1941 in the Deoria district. He is a member of Bharatiya Janata Party. Gorakh Prasad Jaiswal, an illustrious Indian politician and a Member of Parliament of the 15th Lok Sabha from the Deoria constituency was born on 25th September, 1938 at the Deoria town. He is a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party political party.
During the year 2018, there were 67,96,416 domestic tourists and 20 foreign tourists who visited these places of the district. Deoria district is famous for religious tourism. The beautiful temples and pious places in the district allure many travellers from different parts of the country. Some of its prominent temples are Somnath Mandir, Balaji Mandir, Gorakhnath Temple, Gaytri Mandir, Shyam Mandir Dewrhi Mandil, Amethi Mandir, Hanuman Mandir, etc. Somnath Temple, the well known ancient temple of Lord Shiva. Every year a fair is held in the vicinity of the Balaji Mandir which attracts visitors from across the country. Gorakhnath Temple, a vital historical temple in the district draws many pilgrims from far distance place during the Mela of Makara Sankranthi. Gaytri Mandir is a wonderful temple of Goddess Gayatri Devi.