Mirzapur district is a district of Uttar Pradesh with its administrative headquarters located at Mirzapur city. Traditionally, the pervious name of the district was Girzapur. The term Girzapur is taken from another name of the Goddess Parvati i.e. Girija. Some other names of Goddess Parvati are Mirza, Vindhyavasini and Laxmi, whose temples are still present at Vindhyachal. Natives of the district believe that its current name Mirzapur is named after Goddess Laxmi who appeared from the sea. The term Mirza is the combination of two words such as 'Mir' meaning sea and 'za' meaning outcome. According to the words of local people, Raja Nanner founded the place and named it Girijapur, but with the passage of time the name of the place was changed from Girijapur to Mirzapur. As per the history of the district, prior to the establishment of the place as a district it was full of woods and freely used by other neighbour states namely Varanasi, Sakteshgarh, Vijaygarh, Nainagarh, Naugarh, Kantit and Rewa for hunting purpose. Once, Mirzapur district was under the province of Banaras. In the year 1775 the Nawab of Awadh surrendered the sovereignty of this district to the East India Company. Then British East India Company had established this region in order to fulfill the needs of a trading center between the central and the western India. Most of the cities in the district was established by British officers, of the East India Company like Lord Marquess Wellesley. According to some evidences the British construction was started from the Burrier (Bariya) Ghat. The building of Municipal Corporation in the district is also one of the precious example of British Constructions.
Rasoolan Bai, a distinguished Indian Hindustani classical music vocal musician was born in 1902 at Kachhwa Bazar in the Mirzapur district. She was honoured by the prestigious Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for vocal in 1957.
Geographically, the district lies at 25°15'N latitude, 82°56'E longitude and 83 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 16.94% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 4,405 sq. km. and it is bounded by Sant Ravidas Nagar district and Varanasi district on the north, Sonbhadra district on the south, Chandauli district on the east and Allahabad district on the north west. The prominent river that flows through the district is Ganga. The climate of the district remains extremely hot during the summer and fairly cold during the winter. The actual rainfall in the district was 893.3 mm in the year of 2021-2022.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 4 tehsils namely Mirzapur (sadar), Lalganj, Marihan and Chunar. These 4 tehsils are again divided into 12 blocks. There are 1 Lok Sabha seat and 5 Assembly constituencies in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 4 sub-districts, 10 towns and 1,961 villages. The administrative language in the district is Hindi.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 24,96,970 out of which 13,12,302 are males and 11,84,668 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 903 females for every 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 18.00% including 17.67% were males and 18.37% were females. The population density in the district is 567 persons per sq. km. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 48,575 including 25,014 were males and 23,561 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 3,565 out of which 2,170 were males and 1,395 were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 91.81% of the total population. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Hindi with 99.56%.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are used for agricultural purposes. Some of its chief agricultural products are rice, wheat, barley, pulses, etc. The adoption of the new agricultural technologies amongst the famers of the district helps to increase the production of various agricultural items. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products helps in its economy to a great extent. More than half of the population in the district are engaged in agriculture since it is scantily industrialized. Only a few industries of carpet, brassware, sarees, bangles, etc are available in the district. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj declared Mirzapur as one of the country's 250 most backward districts that is currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF). In the year 2020-21 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 17,52,089 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 11,52,511 lakh at Constant Prices during the year 2011-2012. The Net Domestic Product in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 15,38,316 lakh at Current Price and Rs. 9,85,574 lakh at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost in the district during the period 2020-21 was Rs. 54,362 at Current Price and Rs. 34,829 at Constant Prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district is an abode of numerous reputed educational institutions. It provides platform for higher education. Some of its recognised educational institutions are Bharatiya Institute of Management and Professional Studies, Ghanshyam Binani Academy of Management Sciences, K.B.P.G. College, K.M. College, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus Banaras Hindu University, Shaligram College of Engineering and Technology, Bapu Uparaudh Inter College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 68.48% including 78.97% are males and 56.86% are females.
Lal Chandra Kol, an eminent Indian politician and a member of 14th Lok Sabha from Robertsganj constituency was born on 12th July, 1949 at Padariya Khurd in the Mirzapur district. He is a member of the Bahujan Samaj Party. Pakauri Lal, an illustrious Indian politician and a member of the 15th Lok Sabha from the Robertsganj constituency was born on 2nd July, 1952 at Pateherakala in the Mirzapur district. He is a member of the Samajwadi Party political party.
During the year 2021, there were 15,61,703 domestic tourists who visited these places of the district. The district has numerous centres of attraction with religious and historical significance which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. Vindhyachal, a pilgrimage site to Hindus is situated a few miles away from the Mirzapur city. It is a pious place since according to the mythology a part of Goddess Sati fell in it. There is the Kali Khoh in the district which literally means 'the cave of the Goddess Kali' where the Goddess Kali statue has a mouth formed in the shape of a cave. Ghanta Ghar is located at a distance of 3 km. from the Mirzapur Railway Station in the ground of the City Corporation. It was built in the year 1891, by using the finely carved stone and a 1000 kg. alloy bell. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Ojhala Bridge, Chunar Fort, Nagkund, Maha Trikon, Astabhuja Devi, Tarkeshwar Mahadev, Punyajala River, Tanda Water Fall, Khajuri Dam, Vindham Fall, Shivpur, Sita Kund, Kantit Sharif, etc.